Skip to content

ASEAN - Post Nargis Knowledge Management Portal

You are here:     Home Productive Lives LIVELIHOODS TYPES OF LIVELIHOODS

Periodic Review III

TYPES OF LIVELIHOOD PDF Print E-mail

The Periodic Review process assesses the relative importance of the different types of livelihood in the areas affected by Cyclone Nargis by looking at the variation in main income sources, boat ownership and monsoon paddy cultivation to account for both income and subsistence activities.

The majority of households in the Nargis-affected areas engage in agriculture-based pursuits, such as farming, fishing, forestry or the raising of livestock and poultry. These activities include all aspects of the agricultural economy, from direct production through the provision of post-harvest, processing and delivery services. Landless workers are highly dependent on the agricultural economy as sources of labour, and the prospects of local traders rise and fall on the ability of others to buy commodities and supplies.

Households need to diversify their income sources in order to strengthen their resilience, particularly during adverse seasonal or economic conditions. To whatever extent possible, they engage in different livelihood activities at the same time.

Figure 3.3: Principal household livelihood (top choice)

Principal household livelihood

 

Figure 3.4: Top ten sources of income

Rank First choice Second choice Third choice

1st

Seasonal work in non-agriculture/
non-fisheries/non-livestock/
non-aquaculture

Seasonal work in non-agriculture/
non-fisheries/non livestock/
non-aquaculture

Borrowing
(not microfinance)

2nd

Full time in crop production

Trader/shopkeeper/village
broker

Seasonal work in non agriculture/
non-fisheries/
non-livestock/non-aquaculture

3rd

Full time in fishing

Seasonal work in agriculture

Trader/shopkeeper/village
broker

4th

Seasonal work in agriculture

Seasonal work in fisheries

Self-employed/craftsman/
artisan

5th

Trader/shopkeeper/village
broker

Self-employed/craftsman/
artisan

Private sector employee

6th

Self-employed/craftsman/artisan

Private sector employee

Full time in livestock production

7th

Seasonal work in fisheries

Borrowing
(not micro-finance)

Full time in crop production

8th

Private sector employee

Full time in crops production

Seasonal work in livestock

9th

Government employee

Seasonal work in livestock

Full time in fishing

10th

Seasonal work in aquaculture

Government employee

Seasonal work in agriculture

The overall picture from the PR III is similar to that in the PR II. Some 71 per cent of household members rely on ‘casual’ or ‘seasonal’ work. The general categories of primary income sources in the PR III show modest changes compared with findings in the PR II, such as an increase of private sector employment from 2 per cent to 3 percent (figure 3.3) and a drop in ‘group labour’, from 10 per cent to 7 per cent among men (figure 3.5), possibly reflecting agricultural seasonality.

Figure 3.5: Current income-generating activities of household members

Current income-generating

Among women, however, a modest increase appears in those reporting household work or care for household members as the principal activity, from 37 per cent (PR II) to 41 per cent (PR III), possibly suggesting a deterioration in employment opportunities for females.

Figure 3.6: Current primary income-generating activities of men and women

 Current primary income-generating